Refractive keratotomy is an astigmatism surgery technique which was applied clinically for the first time in Japan by T. Sato and K. Akiyam in 1930; but it took almost forty years until S. Fyodorov would develop radial keratotomy, dramatically improving security and predictability of the procedure.
In radial keratotomy, multiple incisions were made in the anterior surface of the cornea, respecting the central optical zone using a metal scalpel and a basic nomogram. Over the years the technique gained popularity and numerous technological improvements were introduced: ultra thin diamond scalpels with micrometric control, surgical microscopes and statistical analysis of results through computer applications used to develop highly accurate nomograms. Astigmatism surgery is performed with a technique called Astigmatic Keratotomy in which corneal incisions were not radial but tangential.
With the advent of the excimer laser and its subsequent application in corneal refractive surgery, in 1988, astigmatism surgery experienced a qualitative change. With the PRK technique, much more accurate results were achieved with incisional surgery, but the post-operative recovery was slow and painful.
It was the Lasik technique, developed in 1990 by Dr. Pallikaris, which led astigmatism surgery towards totally predictable results with a quick and painless recuperation.
Technological advances made possible the arrival, in 2002, of the custom Lasik operation , guided by a wavefront (custom Lasik or Wavefront Lasik) which corrected higher order aberrations and improved the quality of vision, especially in low light conditions, avoiding halos and night glare.
Since 2007, we have offered astigmatism surgery using a multifocal Lasik technique which simultaneously corrects presbyopia or eye strain. By creating a multifocal aspheric profile, eye diseases such as astigmatism, hyperopia, myopia and presbyopia are treated simultaneously, achieving natural high-quality vision for all distances without glasses or contact lenses.